Discovered a new mechanism for cell division in humans: christened as ‘ clerocinesi ‘, represents a safety mechanism, a sort of back-up developed by evolution to prevent abnormal cell division processes lead to the formation of daughter cells sick, and then cancer.
The discovery, which aims to rewrite a chapter of biology who now thought closed, was presented by researchers from the University of Wisconsin on the occasion of the Congress of the American Society of cell biology.
The discovery concerns the Division process whereby a mother cell divides into two identical daughter cells, known as mitosis. This process begins with the duplication of genetic material from the mother cell, continues with the migration of two sets of chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell and concludes with the physical separation of the two daughters (called citocinesi).
So far she had always assumed that when the latter phase of the Division does not happen properly determining the daughter cells with an abnormal number of chromosomes that replicate themselves by continuing to give rise to tumors. This indeed is what provides the theory elaborated in 1914 by a pioneer of cell biology, the German Theodor Boveri, who had studied the Division into the egg cells of sea urchins. No one had ever questioned this theory, at least so far, with the arrival in a new technique, the videomicroscopia, which allows you to record the activity of individual cells.
Researchers have used to follow closely an experiment conducted with the cells that line the retina: they induced to take the route of mitotic Division, but they blocked the process of citocinesi, which in fact abnormal cells with two nuclei. The latter was allowed to proliferate further. According to the theory of Boveri researchers would have to observe the formation of colonies of abnormal cells. Instead, surprisingly, a third of the cells with two nuclei gave birth to daughter cells colonies completely normal. In addition, most of their offspring had sets of chromosomes identical to those of retinal cells used at the beginning of the experiment.
By filming the individual cells, biologists have discovered that cells with two nuclei which undertake block Division in the first phase of growth and then divide into two daughter cells, without resorting to proteins that normally serve to divide the cell membrane in citocinesi.
” We took some time to convince us of what we were watching, because it is not mentioned in any book-says the Coordinator of the study, Mark Burkard-and at the end we concluded that we were observing a new kind of cell division. Now let’s hope-ends-to understand how to promote clerocinesi to aid cancer prevention. ”
Image courtesy of MJ/TR (´･ω･)